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新闻学教育案例集锦

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发表于 2012-3-20 11:43:54 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
【案例】
陈昌凤回复@中国之声侯东合:好奇害死猫~我得收收好奇心了 //@中国之声侯东合:上周末,陈老师在北京研讨老媒体的新作品。本周末,陈老师到广州研讨全媒体的新战略。穿越啊。
@陈昌凤媒体转型,新闻教育也在转型~浙大传媒学院@吴飞
院长成为UGC式用户~「全媒体转型与人才培养模式创新」,南都新闻奖颁奖会之研讨会,在暨南大学
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 楼主| 发表于 2012-3-21 12:50:09 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 admin 于 2012-3-21 12:54 编辑

【案例】
老金曰此书一套,由绍东送来给我,是刘桦老师所赠。书是真好!正在看……//@伍绍东: 回复@杨军红老师:问好杨校长,还是因为,他们的精神,没有精神。 //@杨军红老师:我对天津精神的感受也是如此。身为天津人,却不知天津精神是哪四个词,是我的问题还是精神的悲哀? //@伍绍东:一是春风化雨,一是霸王上弓。
@雁也过课本(一套6册)。编者威廉.麦加菲曾任美国俄亥俄大学校长,美国林肯总统赞誉他为“国家的校长Schoolmaster of Nation”。这套课本,在美国家庭学校使用一个多世纪,对美国数代人的道德培养与教育举足轻重。笔者翻译第五册。
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 楼主| 发表于 2012-4-1 09:17:39 | 显示全部楼层
【案例】
新闻院校毕业生求职10技巧:使用严谨邮箱地址
2012年03月30日12:23  新浪传媒
  新浪传媒讯:美国学生新闻业领导者“CollegeMediaMatters.com”博客网站3月27日刊文称,在上周末的SPJ第3区会议中,Meredith Cochie进行了一段极度活跃的百老汇式演说,这一过程仅被偶尔的“咖啡饱嗝儿声”打断。狂热的50分钟演讲,使一向废话连篇的佛罗里达大学礼堂活跃起来。Cochie分享了一些小技巧,这些技巧旨在帮助新闻系学生从寻找工作的人群中脱颖而出,同时在Facebook上拿出值得炫耀的东西。

  Cochie是受人尊敬的佛罗里达大学新闻系名人,她自嘲为“记者狂”,她一字一句地向听众进行演说,“我要给你们讲一些你们已经知道的东西,我只是想大声说出它们”。

  1)成为一个万事通。或者按Cochie的话来说就是,“对你想要知道的所有事情,成为一个无所不知的人”。记者需要知晓整个世界,同时应当对某一特定领域或学科有近乎渊博的理解。俗话说的好,“精于一门而不要泛而无当”。如果你想报道体育新闻,或者时尚节目,抑或撰写影评,就放开做吧!研究历史、阅读相关的日报新闻;找出并写下新兴的趋势,参与在线讨论;在多种场合分享你知识的广度和深度,包括在其他可能的雇主面前,只要别做过头就行。

  2)使用一个真实较好的电子邮件地址。如果你联系未来雇主的电子邮件地址中含有如下这类东西:阿谀奉承的昵称、傻气的幽默、荒谬古怪的字母数字,那么他们可能在一开始就会感觉你属于不专业的一类求职者。以前,学生联系Cochie时的两个非常明显、且不合时宜的邮件例如:tequilas69@hotmail和 tupac4evah@yahoo.com

  3)仔细分析你的社交媒体形象和谷歌搜索结果对你的描述是什么。在发布、删除、更新、修改或创建能显现你职业化内容的同时,还要保留你的特质。

  4)给人留下深刻的印象。以前,Cochie讲过一个过分积极学生的故事。他很有礼貌并且再三给她名片,并询问就业前景。猜猜结果怎样?对她来说他很出众。他开始的方法有一些生硬和单纯,但总体表现和对陌生人说话的勇气使人印象深刻,同时为他打造了属于自己的名片。久而久之,便能使其他人因为他的工作质量再回过头来找他。在这个数字时代,在众多使用电子邮件的学生之中,那些跳出来向不认识的人介绍自己的人具有一定的优势。

  5)推销,但不要成为“皮条客”。当之无愧的努力工作可以在一定程度上使你出众,正如Cochie指出的一样,“Twitter、博客构筑了一个在线形象和一个专业的个人品牌……否则,你就会成为平凡人中的一个”。

  6)千万别在面试或任何与雇主及导师的聚会中迟到。用Cochie的话说,“当你迟到了,你看上去就很无礼和愚蠢”。

  7)写。一直都要写,写很多。

  8)“搭建,但不要毁掉桥梁。”我同样也可以证明,在你试图找工作或建立新关系时,你认识的人通常和与你共事过的人一样重要。说明白些,这不应该是称之为喜欢后者的简单联络。像保鲜膜一样的虚假,迟早都会被看穿。同样,你应该真诚的对待别人。毕竟,你在新闻业之中。

  9)不要忽视握手。“当你与别人握手的时候,动动你的手,不要向死鱼一样”。根据Cochie所述,握手的学问很简单:坚定但不必捏碎骨头;眼神接触,但不要使人感到毛骨悚然;适当倾斜,但不要靠的太近。

  10)最后看一眼你现在的求职信,然后撕掉它。许多求职信口号叫的相当响亮,但不易记住或者太过平庸。因而,他们的就业前景也不会很好。你的目标要明确,做一点与众不同的事情,为它注入一点活力。记住,这是雇主不得不会见你的第一个机会。用犀利的语句吸引他们,向他们展示出你是谁,以及为什么他们必须要立刻雇佣你。(斯年)

http://news.sina.com.cn/m/2012-03-30/122324200944.shtml
 楼主| 发表于 2012-5-10 19:27:34 | 显示全部楼层
【案例】
清华大学新闻学院培养出镜记者 柴静等人当导师

2012年05月10日12:20 新浪传媒


  新浪传媒讯,日前,清华大学新闻与传播学院发出公告,将与国内重要电视媒体、新闻网站联合开展出镜记者培养项目,在清华大学本科生和研究生中选拔优秀学生、共同培养,为主流新闻媒体输送具有不同学科背景、具备良好新闻素养,能够进行现场采访和报道的优秀记者。该项目已经于2012年4月20日开始,面向全校招生。
  据悉,曹景行、周庆安教授担任项目导师、柴静、张泉灵、鲁健,闾丘露薇等业内资深出镜记者也将担任实践导师。
  一、培养目标
  为电视台、视频网站、通讯社音视频报道、培养综合素质高、具有新闻专业素养、采访能力、出镜报道能力的出镜记者。除具有一般新闻记者的基本素质之外,还具备以下特殊优势:
  1、了解电视和视频报道工作,有很好的现场采访能力,能够在镜头前进行新闻事件采访、调查性深度采访、人物专访等较复杂的采访活动;
  2、有很好的观察能力、写作能力、表述能力,能够进行新闻现场的视频报道、音频报道、直播报道。
  二、培养方式
  由清华大学新闻与传播学院和中央电视台、新华社视频部、地方电视台联合培养,专业导师和实践导师由本院教师和业界人士共同担任。小班授课,以工作坊的方式进行专门训练,跟随业界实践导师进行媒体实践。具体说明如下:
  1、专项培养时间
  每位学生至少有两个学年的专项培养时间,其他在校时间,专业导师和实践导师提供持续性指导。
  2、导师设置
  设立专业导师,每级每课组设项目导师和日常指导教师各一名,另聘请多位实践导师。各自职责如下:

  3、课程安排:(参见学院培养计划)除在新闻与传播学院自由选课之外,设置以下必修课和推荐选修课:


http://news.sina.com.cn/m/2012-05-10/122024395984.shtml

 楼主| 发表于 2012-5-12 13:07:59 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 admin 于 2012-5-12 13:11 编辑

【案例】
美国亚利桑那州立大学新闻学院
Welcome from Dean Callahan

Dean Callahan congratulates a Cronkite graduate.

Welcome to the Walter Cronkite School of Journalism and Mass Communication at Arizona State University. The Cronkite School is a nationally recognized professional program that prepares students for careers as reporters, editors, producers, correspondents, anchors【广播节目主持人】, media managers and public relations specialists. Our students go on to online media outlets, television stations, newspapers, magazines, radio stations, newsletters, public relations firms and corporate and government public relations departments.
We consistently rank in the top 10 in the annual Hearst intercollegiate journalism competition, often called the Pulitzers of college journalism, finishing first in two of the past three years. And our students have finished first in the Society of Professional Journalists’ Mark of Excellence Awards for a record fifth consecutive year. Our faculty consists of award-winning professional journalists and world-class media scholars. We are in the middle of one of the nation’s largest media markets. And each year we draw extraordinarily bright, inquisitive, passionate and diverse students from across the country.
ASU’s journalism program exploded onto the national education landscape in 1984 when the journalism school was named in honor of Walter Cronkite, the longtime CBS Evening News anchor. For more than two decades now, the person who is often called “The Most Trusted Man in America” because of his journalistic excellence and integrity has helped shape and grow the program into a national journalism powerhouse.
In 2005, we entered a new era when ASU President Michael Crow made the Cronkite School an independent college. We declared a simple yet ambitious goal: to take this excellent journalism school and make it the preeminent professional journalism program in the country. And we are well on our way.
In the first few years of independence, we have added more than 15 top journalists and scholars to the faculty, people such as former Washington Post Executive Editor Leonard Downie Jr., former CNN anchor Aaron Brown, former Minneapolis Star Tribune Editor Tim McGuire, BET Vice President Retha Hill, former Sacramento Bee Executive Editor Rick Rodriguez and digital media guru Dan Gillmor. We launched the Cronkite News Service reporting bureau, where our best students prepare stories and news packages under tight deadlines for newspapers, TV newscasts, radio reports and news Web sites around the state. We started the New Media Innovation Lab and the Knight Center for Digital Media Entrepreneurship to help develop the next generation of digital media solutions, and opened the Donald W. Reynolds National Center for Business Journalism. We are transforming our award-winning weekly newscast, ASU NewsWatch, into a daily show. We started a partnership with ABC News in which our top students appear on ABC programs nationally. We are the headquarters for the exciting new Carnegie-Knight News21 experimental digital media program, a consortium of 12 of the nation’s leading universities. And we have a career development center that helps our students get the best internships and jobs possible because, after all, the most important measure of a professional journalism program is where students go after graduation and beyond.
All of these exciting initiatives are happening in a spectacular new facility in the center of the nation’s fifth-largest city. Our students are learning in a new, state-of-the-art journalism building that is unparalleled in journalism education.
It is equipped with 14 digital newsrooms and computer labs, two TV studios, 280 digital student work stations, the Cronkite Theater, the First Amendment Forum and the latest and most sophisticated technology found anywhere. Student journalists are walking to cover major events at City Hall, county, state and federal agencies, and major sporting and cultural venues across Phoenix. Our partnerships with media companies around the Valley – already strong – have grown as the distance between us in most cases is now blocks instead of miles.
Even with all of these exciting new initiatives, our biggest asset remains the foundation of excellence and integrity that has been the hallmark of our school, guided by the values and standards set by Walter Cronkite.
I hope you have the opportunity to take a look through our website and stop by the Cronkite School.
Sincerely,
Dean Christopher Callahan


Faculty Biographies
Craig M. Allen, Associate Professor
Ph.D., Ohio University
Craig Allen joined the Cronkite faculty after 14 years in broadcast and print journalism and seven years teaching college journalism. He is active in international mass communication and has led delegations to Indonesia and Mexico. A broadcast historian, Allen has written extensively on political media, presidential communication and the international mass media, and he teaches courses in international communication and broadcast journalism. Allen’s books include “News Is People: The Rise of Local TV News.” He currently is writing a history of U.S. Spanish-language television. He also is active in ASU faculty affairs as past president of the Downtown Campus Faculty Senate and member of the University Academic Council and the ASU General Studies Council.
Melanie Alvarez, Executive Producer, Cronkite NewsWatch, Lecturer
B.A., University of Southern California
Melanie Asp Alvarez instructs and supervises student producers for the award-winning student-produced live newscast, Cronkite NewsWatch. In April 2010, NewsWatch was awarded Best of Festival by the Broadcast Education Association, making it the top student newscast in the United States. Prior to joining the Cronkite School, Alvarez worked as a newscast producer at KKTV in Colorado Springs, Colo.; WTSP in Tampa/St. Petersburg, Fla.; and KPHO in Phoenix, where she also served as an executive producer for the morning newscast and special projects. Alvarez has received several regional Emmy nominations.
Linda Austin, Executive Director, Donald W. Reynolds National Center for Business Journalism, Professor of Practice
B.A., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Linda Austin joined the Cronkite School in 2009 as executive director of the Donald W. Reynolds National Center for Business Journalism. She has been editor of the Lexington (Ky.) Herald-Leader; executive editor of The News-Sentinel in Fort Wayne, Ind.; and managing editor of the News & Record in Greensboro, N.C. She also served as assistant managing editor/finance for The Philadelphia Inquirer and as editor/publisher of the monthly PhillyTech magazine. She is a 2009 fellow in the Punch Sulzberger Executive News Media Leadership Program at Columbia University’s Journalism School.
Marianne Barrett, Senior Associate Dean, Solheim Professor, Associate Professor
Ph.D., Michigan State University
Marianne Barrett brought her experiences as an ESPN programming executive to the Cronkite School when she joined the faculty in 1994. Barrett, whose research focuses on media management, economics and policy, was named a Frank Stanton Fellow by the International Radio and Television Society in 2002 for her “outstanding contributions to electronic media education.” She became associate dean in 2005 and the following year was named the Louise Solheim Professor of Journalism.
Sharon Bernstein, Donald W. Reynolds Visiting Professor In Business Journalism
M.A., University of California
Sharon Bernstein, an award-winning editor and reporter with experience in print, broadcast and online media, is the Cronkite School’s third Donald W. Reynolds Visiting Professor in Business Journalism. Bernstein’s ground-breaking reporting led to new laws and policy in a variety of areas, including health care, urban planning and emergency preparedness. As an assistant business editor for the Los Angeles Times, Bernstein helped direct its coverage of the 2008 financial crisis. As a Times reporter, she contributed to the paper’s Pulitzer Prize-winning coverage of a bank shootout in 1998 and Southern California wildfires in 2004. Other awards include first place in investigative reporting from the Los Angeles Press Club and the Harry Chapin Media award for investigative reporting on the disadvantaged. She currently serves as online editor for NBC-LA.
Sharon Bramlett-Solomon, Associate Professor, Lincoln Center of Applied Ethics Professor of Media & Culture
Ph.D., Indiana University
Sharon Bramlett-Solomon is a winner of the Barry Bingham Fellowship for advancing diversity in college journalism education and a recipient of AEJMC Newspaper Division’s Professor or the Year Award for her multicultural initiatives. She has received numerous teaching, research and service award recognitions during her tenure at ASU. Previously, she spent seven years in newspapers, public relations and radio, including reporting for the Memphis Commercial Appeal and the Louisville Courier-Journal. Her research focuses on U.S. media identity and representation of race, gender and social class.
Aaron Brown, Walter Cronkite Professor of Journalism, Professor of Practice
Aaron Brown is the inaugural Walter Cronkite Professor of Journalism. The former lead anchor for CNN joined the Cronkite School in January 2008 and teaches a seminar “Turning Points in Television News History.” Brown was news anchor of CNN’s flagship show “NewsNight” from 2001 to 2005, covering stories from the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks to the 2004 presidential elections and the Iraq War. He is a winner of the prestigious Edward R. Murrow award. Brown recently returned to television to host “Wide Angle,” a PBS weekly global public affairs series.
Christopher Callahan, Dean and University Vice Provost
M.P.A., Harvard University
Christopher Callahan is the founding dean of the Walter Cronkite School. He is responsible for leading a 75-member faculty and staff and 1,300 students. Prior to joining ASU, Callahan was associate dean at the Philip Merrill College of Journalism at the University of Maryland and senior editor of American Journalism Review. Before entering journalism education, Callahan was a Washington correspondent for The Associated Press. He is a graduate of the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University and the author of "A Journalist’s Guide to the Internet."
Serena Carpenter, Assistant Professor
Ph.D., Michigan State University
Serena Carpenter joined the faculty in 2007 after finishing her Ph.D. at Michigan State University. Her teaching and research interest areas include online journalism, news quality, citizen journalism, blogs, military-press relations and the sociology of news production. Carpenter teaches JMC 425 Online Media, a course required of all Cronkite School students. Her research has been published in Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, Mass Communication and Society and Telecommunications Policy.
Michael Casavantes, Lecturer
Ph.D., Arizona State University
Michael Casavantes joined the Cronkite faculty in 1990 and has taught at the university level for 25 years. He has 15 years of experience in broadcast news, with five years as a television reporter, anchor and producer for ABC and NBC affiliates in El Paso, Texas, and 10 years as news director of a 100,000-watt public radio affiliate in Las Cruces, N.M. Casavantes has been honored with teaching awards at New Mexico State and the Cronkite School. He teaches JMC 315 Intermediate Reporting and Writing for broadcast students.
Sue Clark-Johnson, Director, Morrison Institute for Public Affairs in College of Public Programs (Joint Faculty Appointment)
Sue Clark-Johnson, director of the Morrison Institute for Public Policy at Arizona State University, has a joint faculty appointment with the Cronkite School. As president of the newspaper division of Gannett Co. and former publisher of The Arizona Republic, Clark-Johnson was head of the nation’s largest newspaper group. She spent 41 years as a reporter, editor, publisher and senior executive at Gannett Co. She has also served as chairwoman of the Newspaper Association of America.
John E. Craft, Curator of Marguerite and Jack Clifford Gallery, Professor
Ph.D., Ohio University
A national expert in television media, John Craft has taught broadcasting at the Cronkite School since 1973. His award-winning documentary programs on Route 66 have been distributed around the world and have been broadcast on public television stations in nearly 80 of the top television markets in the United States. Craft’s research interests are in media management, media and society and the philosophy of mass communication. As an Arizona Humanities Scholar, Craft often speaks to civic, educational and professional organizations. He is a winner of the Silver Circle Award from the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences.
Steve Crane, Director of Washington Operations, Professor of Practice
M.B.A., University of Maryland
As director of Washington operations, Steve Crane runs the Cronkite News Service bureau in D.C. and manages Cronkite professional programs in Washington. Crane was a political reporter and editor for The Washington Times before directing the D.C. bureau of the University of Maryland’s Capital News Service, where his students won numerous awards for their reporting. For five years before joining the Cronkite School, he was assistant dean at University of Maryland’s Philip Merrill College of Journalism.
Roy Dabner, Lecturer
A veteran photojournalist, Roy Dabner began teaching at the Cronkite School in 2005. For the past 15 years, he has worked as a Phoenix-based photo stringer for the Associated Press and European Pressphoto Agency. During his more than 30 years as a photojournalist, he has covered major sporting events from the Super Bowl to the World Series to NBA and MLB All-Star Games. He worked for several Midwestern daily newspapers, including five years with the Gannett-owned Commercial-News in Danville, Ill., before coming to Phoenix in 1996.
Steve Doig, Knight Chair in Journalism, Professor
B.A., Dartmouth College
Steve Doig joined the Cronkite faculty in 1996 as the school’s first Knight Chair in Journalism following a 23-year career in newspaper journalism. An expert in computer-assisted reporting, Doig was part of an investigative team at The Miami Herald that won the 1993 Pulitzer Prize for Public Service for an analysis on how weakened building codes and poor construction contributed to the devastation of Hurricane Andrew.
Leonard Downie Jr., Weil Family Professor of Journalism, Professor of Practice
M.A., The Ohio State University
Leonard Downie Jr. is vice president-at-large of The Washington Post, where he was executive editor from 1991 to 2008. During his 44 years at the Post, Downie was an investigative reporter, editor on the local and national news staffs, London correspondent and managing editor and helped supervise the newspaper’s Watergate coverage. During his 17 years as executive editor, the newspaper won 25 Pulitzer Prizes. Downie is a founder and board member of Investigative Reporters and Editors Inc., an advisory board member of the Shirley Povich Center for Sports Journalism at the University of Maryland's Philip Merrill College of Journalism and chairman of the board of advisers of Kaiser Health News. He is the author of four nonfiction books and a novel.
Steve Elliott, Director of Digital News, Cronkite News Service, Professor of Practice
M.B.A., Arizona State University
Steve Elliott is the founding director of Cronkite News Service’s print journalism program. He joined the Cronkite School in September 2006 after a 19-year career with The Associated Press, the world’s largest news organization. Elliott’s AP career included tours as a reporter, newsroom manager, bureau chief and business executive. At Cronkite News Service, Elliott leads groups of advanced students in coverage of statewide stories for newspapers and news Web sites. Their stories appear regularly in nearly 30 publications across the state and region.
Mary-Lou Galician, Associate Professor
Ed.D., Memphis State University (now University of Memphis)
Mary-Lou Galician, a media literacy advocate and award-winning researcher and educator, joined the Cronkite School after a long career in print journalism, television, public relations, advertising and marketing. She wrote the pioneering research-based textbook “Sex, Love, and Romance in the Mass Media” for the analysis and criticism course of the same name that she created and teaches and that is a model used at universities around the nation. Her “Handbook of Product Placement in the Mass Media” is used worldwide.
Kristin Gilger, Associate Dean, Professor of Practice
M.A., University of Nebraska
Kristin Gilger directs the school’s 50-plus part-time faculty members and oversees the school’s professional programs. She also serves as executive editor of the national News21 program, headquartered at the Cronkite School. She was director of Student Media at ASU from 2002-2007. She spent 21 years in various reporting and editing roles at newspapers across the country, including the Times-Picayune in New Orleans, La., the Salem Statesman Journal in Oregon and The Arizona Republic. She conducts training at newspapers and for newspaper associations nationally and internationally.
Dan Gillmor, Director, Knight Center for Digital Media Entrepreneurship, Kauffman Professor of Digital Media Entrepreneurship
B.A., University of Vermont
Dan Gillmor is an internationally recognized leader in new media who is the founding director of the Knight Center at ASU. A longtime Silicon Valley-based journalist, Gillmor wrote a popular business and technology column for the San Jose Mercury News and launched a weblog in 1999, a site believed to have been the first mainstream journalism blog. In 2004 he published “We the Media: Grassroots Journalism by the People, for the People,” the leading book on citizen journalism. He also directs the Center for Citizen Media, a project to expand grassroots media.
Dawn Gilpin, Assistant Professor
Ph.D., Temple University
Dawn Gilpin spent more than 15 years working in Italy in organizational communication and public relations, including crisis management and internal communication. She completed her Ph.D. in Mass Media & Communication at Temple University, where she was a Presidential Fellow. Gilpin’s research focuses on the interactions between organizations, media and public policy, particularly in terms of organizational and issue identity and the dynamics of knowledge and power. She teaches public relations at the Cronkite School.
Donald G. Godfrey, Professor
Ph.D., University of Washington
Don Godfrey is the past president of the Broadcast Education Association and immediate past chair of the BEA Research Committee as well as a former editor of the Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, one of the leading scholarly journals in mass communication. He came to ASU in 1988 with 17 years in the radio and television industry as a news and sports anchor, reporter and director. Godfrey, a broadcast historian, uses a variety of methods in his research, including historical, legal and critical. He has won multiple awards for his creative and scholarly work, including the prestigious Distinguished Education Service Award from the BEA. He has written and edited more than a dozen books and is still at it.
Susan Green, Assistant News Director and Broadcast Director, Cronkite News Service
B.A., Arizona State University
Susan Green is the founding broadcast director of the Cronkite News Service and assistant news director. She came to ASU in August 2006 from KNXV-TV, where she served as managing editor at the ABC affiliate. In her 21 years as a broadcast professional, Green held positions at stations in Phoenix, Washington, D.C., Los Angeles and New York City. At Cronkite News Service, she works with advanced broadcast students to produce news stories and packages that are distributed to television stations across the state.
Retha Hill, Director, New Media Innovation Lab, Professor of Practice
B.A., Wayne State University
Retha Hill joined the Cronkite faculty in 2007 after nearly eight years at BET, where she was vice president for content for BET Interactive, the online unit of Black Entertainment Television and the most visited site specializing in African-American content on the Internet. Before joining BET, Hill was executive producer for special projects at washingtonpost.com. At the New Media Innovation Lab, Hill works with students from multiple disciplines, including journalism, to research and develop new media products for media companies.
Jim Jacoby, NewsWatch Television Production Manager, Lecturer
B.A., Arizona State University
Jim Jacoby joined the Cronkite School faculty after 20 years in television news. An Emmy award-winning editor and director, Jacoby teaches television production and serves as the school’s production manager. In addition to his Cronkite School duties, he works as a freelance editor and does graphics for the Arizona Cardinals, Sun Devil Football, and several local production companies.
Aric Johnson, Arizona Republic Editor-in-Residence
B.A., University of Southern California
Aric Johnson is the school’s first Arizona Republic Editor in Residence, overseeing students in a multimedia reporting class in which they report breaking news for azcentral.com, Arizona’s most viewed news website. He works out of the Republic’s newsroom, coaching students and editing their work. Johnson worked at newspapers in California and Nevada before coming to the Republic, where he has served as assistant business editor, education editor and editor of the Tempe Republic.
Andrew Leckey, Reynolds Endowed Chair in Business Journalism, President, Reynolds National Center for Business Journalism, Professor
M.A., University of Missouri
Andrew Leckey is the Reynolds Endowed Chair in Business Journalism and President of the Donald W. Reynolds National Center for Business Journalism at the Cronkite School. He is a longtime syndicated investment columnist for the Chicago Tribune, former CNBC anchor and the author or editor of 10 financial books. He received the National Association of Investors Corporation’s Distinguished Award in Investment Education and was founding director of the Bloomberg Business Journalism Program at the University of California, Berkeley.
Mark Lodato, Assistant Dean, News Director, Professor of Practice
B.J., University of Missouri
Mark Lodato joined the Cronkite School in 2006 after working for 16 years as a television reporter and anchor for television stations in Washington, D.C., San Francisco, Phoenix and Ft. Myers, Fla. He also served as news director at the University of Maryland’s Phillip Merrill College of Journalism. At the Cronkite School, Lodato oversees the broadcast news operation and works with advanced students in the school’s national award-winning television newscast, Cronkite NewsWatch, which airs four times each week across much of Arizona.
Jason Manning, Director of Student Media
M.A., George Mason University
Jason Manning is director of student media at Arizona State University, where he serves as adviser and publisher of the university's student-run news outlets, the State Press, StatePress.com, State Press Multimedia and State Press Magazine. He also is a faculty member at the Cronkite School. Prior to joining ASU, he was the politics editor for washingtonpost.com, where he led the website’s coverage of the federal government and national campaign politics.
William K. Marimow, Executive Editor, News21
B.A., Trinity College
William K. Marimow comes to Cronkite after leading some of the nation's top newsrooms, most recently as editor of The Philadelphia Inquirer and previously as managing editor and vice president of news at National Public Radio and editor of The Baltimore Sun. He received the Pulitzer Prize for investigative reporting in 1985 and the Pulitzer Prize for public service in 1978. As a Nieman Fellow, he studied the First Amendment at Harvard Law School and the Kennedy School of Government. Marimow is also a member of the board of trustees of Trinity College in Connecticut.
Fran R. Matera, Associate Professor
Ph.D., University of Miami
Fran Matera joined the Cronkite faculty in 1989 after teaching at Florida International University and the University of Miami. She has a background in both newspapers and public relations, including stints as the night copy chief at The Miami News and as an editor of a fine arts magazine. She teaches writing for public relations and public relations campaigns at the Cronkite School, and her students have won the NASA Means Business competition four years in a row. Matera’s research focuses on Hispanic audiences and is conducted in both English and Spanish.
Tim McGuire, Frank Russell Chair for the Business of Journalism, Professor
J.D., William Mitchell College of Law
Tim McGuire is the former editor and senior vice president of the Minneapolis Star Tribune, the nation’s 17th largest daily newspaper. He served as president of the American Society of Newspaper Editors and wrote a nationally syndicated column, “More Than Work,” focusing on ethics, spirituality and values in the workplace, before joining the Cronkite School in 2006 as the Frank Russell Chair in the Business of Journalism. He teaches courses in ethics and diversity and the business of journalism and serves as mentor to graduate students.
Rick Rodriguez, Carnegie Professor of Journalism, Southwest Borderlands Initiative Professor, Professor of Practice
B.A., Stanford University
Rick Rodriguez is the Cronkite School’s first Carnegie Professor specializing in Latino and transnational news coverage. The former executive editor of The Sacramento Bee in Sacramento, Calif., and the first Latino president of the American Society of Newspaper Editors came to the Cronkite School in 2008 to develop a new cross-disciplinary specialization in the coverage of issues related to Latinos and the U.S.-Mexico border. While he was at the Bee, the paper won the 2007 Pulitzer Prize for Feature Photography. Rodriguez is known nationally as a champion of watchdog journalism and newsroom diversity.
Sandra Mims Rowe, Edith Kinney Gaylord Visiting Professor in Journalism Ethics
B.A., East Carolina University
Sandra Mims Rowe, former editor of The (Portland) Oregonian, is the Cronkite School’s sixth Edith Kinney Gaylord Visiting Professor in Journalism Ethics. As editor of The Oregonian, Rowe led the paper to five Pulitzer Prizes, including the Gold Medal for Public Service, before her retirement in 2010. Prior to that, she served as executive editor and vice president of The Virginian-Pilot and The Ledger-Star in Norfolk, Va., for nearly 10 years.
Dennis E. Russell, Associate Professor
Ph.D., University of Utah
Dennis Russell joined the Cronkite faculty in 1991 after a decade-long career as a print journalist in the Phoenix metropolitan area. He teaches a wide array of classes, including Mass Communication Law, Media Issues in American Pop Culture and Media Problems. His research focuses on mass-mediated popular culture, critical studies, film, literary and music analysis and First Amendment law. He has been published in Popular Culture Review, Studies in Popular Culture, Southwestern Mass Communication Journal and Communication and the Law.
Joseph Russomanno, Associate Professor
Ph.D., University of Colorado-Boulder
Joseph Russomanno joined the Cronkite School in 1994. He has worked a news reporter in radio and television and as a television news writer, newscast producer and executive producer at stations in St. Louis and Denver. He has received several awards for his broadcast work. His teaching and research focus on broadcast issues and First Amendment law. Russomanno has published three books related to First Amendment law and has written articles and opinion columns for scholarly and mass media publications. He teaches media law.
B. William Silcock, Director of Cronkite Global Initiatives, Humphrey Program Curator, Associate Professor
Ph.D., University of Missouri
A two-time Fulbright Scholar, Bill Silcock researches global television news cultures, most recently in the Balkans. He joined the faculty in 2001 after a career as a TV news director, producer and anchor/reporter. He has won national awards for his documentaries “Backstage at a Presidential Debate: The Press, the Pundits and The People,” “Fortress of Faith” and “Woodstock: Back to the Garden.” Silcock’s research examines newsroom culture, particularly news values. He teaches broadcast journalism and the history and principles of journalism.
Terry Greene Sterling, Writer-in-Residence, Faculty Associate
M.F.A., Goucher College
Terry Greene Sterling is a three-time winner of Arizona’s highest journalism honor, the Virg Hill Journalist of the Year Award, and the recipient of more than 50 national and regional journalism awards. She was a staff investigative reporter at Phoenix New Times for 13 years. Her stories have appeared in The Washington Post, Newsweek, Arizona Highways, the Arizona Republic, The Nieman Narrative Digest and many other publications. Her book, "ILLEGAL: Life and Death in Arizona's Immigration War Zone," was published by Globe Pequot Press in 2010 and excerpted online by Rolling Stone, The Village Voice and The Daily Beast. She is a contributor for The Daily Beast.
Edward J. Sylvester, Professor
M.A., City College of New York
Ed Sylvester is the mentor for Mayo Medical School students in the Combined M.M.C. / M.D. program that began in 2010. He created the course in Science and Medical Writing in 1999 and has taught it ever since. He has written five books for popular audiences ranging from the dangers of current U.S. biodefense policies (with Dr. Lynn C. Klotz) to doctors' efforts to rescue severely brain-injured patients in the Johns Hopkins Hospital Neurosciences Critical Care Unit. Before joining the faculty, Sylvester was a reporter at the Los Angeles Times.
Leslie-Jean Thornton, Assistant Professor
Ph.D., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Leslie-Jean Thornton’s research focuses on professional journalism practices, convergence and new media. She is particularly interested in the various “digital divides” that may or may not form as a result of changed distribution and reporting forms for news. She has taught online media and advanced editing at the Cronkite School since 2004 after developing similar classes for the State University of New York at New Paltz. Before accepting a Freedom Forum fellowship for her doctoral work at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, she was a newspaper editor in New York, Connecticut and Virginia - most recently at The Virginian-Pilot.
Xu Wu, Associate Professor
Ph.D., University of Florida
Xu Wu, a native of Beijing, graduated from People’s University of China in 1992 and worked as a national correspondent and domestic news editor at Xinhua (New China) News Agency. He helped found the Xinhua Daily Telegraph, one of the leading national newspapers in China, and operated a media consulting agency there. He has taught strategic media and public relations at the Cronkite School since 2005. Wu’s research interests include international public relations, crisis management, public diplomacy and political communication.
G. Pascal Zachary
Professor of Practice (Joint Faculty Appointment with the Consortium for Science, Policy and Outcomes)
B.A., SUNY at Albany
G. Pascal Zachary was a senior writer with The Wall Street Journal for 13 years and a technology columnist with The New York Times for two years. He has worked as a magazine editor for Time Inc. and as a reporter for The San Jose Mercury News and for three alternative weekly newspapers. Zachary has taught journalism and writing at Stanford University and UC Berkeley and is the author of four books, including "The Diversity Advantage" and "Married to Africa."
Staff
[size=1.1em]Dean’s Office Team
Carolyn McNearney
Assistant to the Dean
602.496.0291
carolyn.mcnearney@asu.edu
Mary Cook
Director of Student Success
602.496.8330
mary.cook@asu.edu
Catalina Monsalve
Administrative Assistant
catalina.monsalve@asu.edu


[size=1.1em]Communications Team
Linda Davis
Graphic Designer Principal
602.496.5125
ld@asu.edu
Molly Brush
Communications Program Coordinator
602.496.5118
molly.brush@asu.edu
Liz Smith
Outreach Director
602.496.5232
elizabeth.grace.smith@asu.edu


[size=1.1em]Advising Team
Tracy Tibbetts
Administrative Assistant
tracy.tibbetts@asu.edu
Beth Landish
Academic Specialist
602.496.5055
beth.landish@asu.edu
Brad Longwell
Academic Specialist
602.496.5055
brad.longwell@asu.edu
Yolanda Murphy
Specialist, Graduate Programs
602.496.1796
yolanda.murphy17@asu.edu
Deborah Smith
Academic Specialist
602.496.5055
dlsmit11@asu.edu
Emily Walter
Academic Specialist
602.496.5055
emily.k.walter@asu.edu


[size=1.1em]Development & Events Team
Liz Bernreuter
Director of Development
602.496.9444
elizabeth.bernreuter@asu.edu
Katie Burke
Development Assistant
602.496.4539
kathleen.burke@asu.edu
Megan Calcote
Events Coordinator, Senior
602.496.7845
megan.calcote@asu.edu
Keith Chandler
Events and Administration Program Coordinator
602.496.5119
keith.chandler@asu.edu


[size=1.1em]Cronkite Global Initiatives Team
B. William Silcock
Director of Cronkite Global Initiatives, Humphrey Program Curator, Associate Professor
602.496.5174
bsilcock@asu.edu
Kristi Kappes
Humphrey Program Manager
602.496.5173
kristi.kappes@asu.edu


[size=1.1em]Engineering Team
Jim Dove
Chief Broadcast Engineer
602.496.1774
jim.dove@asu.edu
Tom Bradshaw
Engineering/Technology Support Specialist
602.496.2882
thomas.bradshaw@asu.edu
Brian Snyder
Production Specialist
602.496.8257
briansnyder@asu.edu

[size=1.1em]Technology Team
TJ Sokol
IT Director
602.496.4888
tsokol@asu.edu
Alvin Bridges
Desktop Support Coordinator
602.496.7921
alvin.bridges@asu.edu
Chris Campbell
Audio Visual Technician
602.496.5227
chriscampbell@asu.edu
Jeremy Leggat
Systems Administrator
602.496.5223
jleggat@asu.edu
Niclas Lindh
Instructional Technology Analyst/Web Master
602.496.5226
niclas.lindh@asu.edu
Mark Ng
Lead Web Developer
602.496-5039
mark.ng@asu.edu
Jeff Williams
Desktop Support Technician
602.496.5224
jwilliams1@asu.edu
Tom Ziegmann
Desktop Support Technician
602.496.5225
Tom.Ziegmann@asu.edu


[size=1.1em]High School Journalism Programs Team
Anita Luera
Director
602.496.5477
anita.luera@asu.edu
Dave Cornelius
Director of Digital Media Outreach Programs for High School Journalism
602.496.9710
david.cornelius@asu.edu
Stephanie Acuna
Administrative Assistant
602.496.5104
stephanie.acuna@asu.edu


[size=1.1em]Career Services Team
Michael Wong
Director of Career Services
602.496.7430
mike.wong@asu.edu
Alicia Tang-Mills
Administrative Assistant, Career Services
602.496.5637
atangmil@asu.edu


[size=1.1em]Budget/Financial Team
Patrick Hays
Director of Fiscal & Business Services
602.496.5040
patrick.hays@asu.edu
Cindy Coffman
Business Operations Manager
602.496.8683
clcoff@asu.edu
Cheryl Waddell
Accounting Specialist
602.496.5117
cheryl.waddell@asu.edu










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 楼主| 发表于 2012-5-26 19:31:33 | 显示全部楼层
【案例】
范东升据黄社长说,这是他第一次这样在大陆详细介绍台湾媒体历史经验,值得思考借鉴。
@汕头大学新闻学院#台湾旺报社长来访汕大#
台湾两大主流媒体《中国时报》和《联合日报》所扮演的角色不仅在于协助执政者维稳,也在于协助一般民众维权。@范东升
@Ms楊的世界
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 楼主| 发表于 2012-5-29 11:11:16 | 显示全部楼层
【案例】
May 27, 2012, 9:50 pm
At U.S.C., Media Training for Afghan StudentsBy MICHAEL CIEPLY
Erick Yates GreenSamiullah Nabizada, who attended the University of Southern California cinema school in 2011, has returned to Afghanistan.
LOS ANGELES — Before he became famous in the media world as the chief executive of MTV, and then its parent, Viacom, Tom Freston had a less glorious career as the proprietor of a clothing company based in Afghanistan.
Things ended badly, by Mr. Freston’s account, when he had to leave the country in 1978 on the heels of a coup. “There was too much shooting in the streets,” he recalled.
But his love affair with Afghanistan continued. And Mr. Freston, fired from his Viacom position by Sumner Redstone in 2006, has been quietly stealing time from his current career as a consultant and entrepreneur to connect the dots of his far-flung experiences — from untamed Afghanistan to the unruly media future — via a little-noticed program at the University of Southern California’s School of Cinematic Arts.
Kept under wraps until now because of security concerns, the program, entering its second year, enrolls two Afghan students annually for a crash course in the cinema school’s summer program.
The students are sponsored by Mr. Freston in collaboration with Saad Mohseni of the Moby Group, a media conglomerate in Afghanistan (on whose board Mr. Freston serves). For about seven weeks, the students get a day-and-night education in writing, editing, cinematography and whatever else it takes to make programming for screens, large and small.
“Four years is too late,” Mr. Freston said of his reasons for backing students for short stints, rather than a full four-year education. (His own son is a graduate of the cinema school, its spokeswoman said.)
By Mr. Freston’s account, the trained talent pool in Afghanistan’s media world roughly matches what he found decades ago in the cable television world — many are willing, but few are trained. With that in mind, two trainees will arrive at U.S.C. next month to begin studying under the program’s overseer, David Weitzner.
The trainees from last summer have returned to Afghanistan, and are working in a rough-and-tumble business that still fears a Taliban resurgence but in the meantime has millions of viewers for programs as far-flung as a Persian-language version of a Spanish-language telenovela.
Before leaving Afghanistan in 1978, Mr. Freston said, he briefly considered just sticking around until things settled down. “I’d still be waiting,” he said.

http://mediadecoder.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/05/27/at-u-s-c-media-training-for-afghan-students/

 楼主| 发表于 2012-5-31 23:38:44 | 显示全部楼层
【案例】
张志安#中大记者沙龙#「记者是人民的编辑」。 //@孙小璠:怒赞今晚!Carlson说,”A journalist is people`s editor."好的记者,首先是能打动别人的人。好的采访,是这样的人让话语承载着思想在彼此间自然流淌。
@刘颂杰#美国知名传媒人聚首中大传播学院# 美国《新闻周刊》国际版总编辑Ron Javers与《华尔街日报》亚洲版创始人之一Eugene Carlson今晚在中大传院共同主讲“采访的艺术”。两人互相采访,上演精彩对手戏!@张志安 @胡舒立



轉發(39) | 評論(8) 今天19:29 來自iPhone客户端
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 楼主| 发表于 2012-6-11 17:54:16 | 显示全部楼层
【案例】
纽约大学新闻系学生新闻手册
2012-05-01 18:39:24   来源:《青年记者》 杨晓白/编译   评论:0 点击:76
好的新闻人和学者有一个共同的原则:在工作中保持正直诚实。医生的信条是:“不伤害”。我们的信条是:“说实话”。
  作为一名正式注册的纽约大学新闻学系学生,你被认为是我们学术研究机构学者群体的一员。一位学者的使命是扩大知识的边界;一位新闻人的使命是通过尽可能精确地寻找和报道事实以服务公众;好的新闻人和学者有一个共同的原则:在工作中保持正直诚实。医生的信条是:“不伤害”。我们的信条是:“说实话”。

  新闻系发布本手册,是为了强调在学习中可能出现的问题。本手册的目标是成为描述性的、规定性的和适合于教学的手册。关于新闻学和职业道德问题,除了剽窃和捏造新闻事实这类的明显问题外,往往不能简单地用“对”或者“错”来解决,答案可能有,也可能没有。任何时候,当出现道德或者法律问题的时候,学生应当查询此手册,或向教授咨询。对待道德或者法律出现交叉、冲突的时候,最好的应对办法就是坚持公开和诚实。

  很显然本手册不能对任何问题都进行非常深入的讨论。新闻系提供了整学期的关于道德和信息技术的课程,在这些课程里,很多问题将得到详细阐述。
  
  正直诚实

  记者批评其他人和组织的行为,他们刊发的内容能够对所报道的人群、事件和机构甚至大到整个社会,造成深刻的影响。记者必须做到“正直诚实”的最高标准,对于记者,“正直诚实”意味着:事实、公正、真挚,以及避免利益冲突的出现。

  新闻系是一个对调查研究、分析和写作,以及与教授、同学讨论等的过程中的诚实态度有严格要求的教育组织。在学术中缺乏诚信,破坏了学习过程的根本,并且会给学生带来极为严重的后果,包括课程不及格或者被开除出校。

  任何形式的作业——包括纸面的、电子版的,必须是原创。一个学生不能在没有征得讲师同意的情况下,将在一门课上的作业或者相似的内容当做另一门课的作业。当然,对那些需要较长时间完成作业的课程,教授可能会鼓励学生对于先前已经完成的课题进行更详细的处理,或是对于需要消耗较大精力的疑难问题,两位教授可以同意学生将该作业同时应用于两门课。然而在任何情况下,这样做都必须事先得到任课教授的批准。

  另外,学生不得将在一门课上进行的研究结果,再用在其他课程上,除非得到了两门课教授的明确同意。联手进行课题研究的学生应当说明,他们会对作业的真实性负同等责任。最后,学生提交的作为作业的内容,不得是已经发表或是被专业出版机构确定采用或拒绝的内容。当然,我们鼓励学生将作业在正式出版物上发表。如果有任何疑问,请咨询你的教授。
  
  信源

  对“信源”笼统的定义是为报道提供信息的人,无论该报道最终采取什么形式发布——印刷品、网络、广播(播客也包括在内)、电视新闻或是网络视频。

  记者应当寻求在报道信源告知他们的信息时,做到公平和诚实。事实的精确性要经过检查,复查,事实和公平要通过坚持不懈的工作,找到所报道事件的各方,通过与持有不同甚至迥异观点的多信源沟通获得。适当的时候,记者应当做出明智的尝试,即平衡“已成名”的专家(比如政府智库的发言人等)与那些来自“官方”文化之外的知识渊博的信源之间的关系。公平还意味着要坚持“无惊诧”的原则:即当撰写对某人的批评报道时,要在报道发布之前,给被报道的人回答质疑的机会。

  另外,记者应当避免陈词滥调,在可能的和合适的时候,要确保来自不同经济背景、种族团体、信仰和文化的人,他们的观点都能在报道中得到体现。纽约大学新闻系强烈要求学生要以尊重之心对待信源。永远不要以采取惩罚性的措施作为威胁,对待那些让人觉得缺乏合作诚意的信源。

  1.所闻皆可录、信源居幕后、署职不署人与不可引用

  这些方式需要记者和信源之间进行预先协议,协议决定了记者使用信源提供的信息的范围权限。协议必须事先达成,绝不要事后进行。信源不能说出了一些内容,然后声称这些内容是“不能被报道”的,那样就太晚了。当与那些第一次与记者谈话的信源打交道时,记者应当确信这些基本原则和可能的结果已经被信源所了解,然后在可能的情况下,记者要为信源提供回旋余地。当然,如果该信息对于报道不是必须的,则记者可以同意不使用该信息。如果你跟5名记者谈话,你将可能得到5个不同的对于这些短语的定义。这就是为什么一名记者在与信源达成任何协议之前,很重要的事情就是把这些条目解释清楚的原因。

  (1)“所闻皆可录”,意思是信源所说的任何信息都可以被报道、发布或者播出。所有的谈话内容将被默认为可公开,除非信源特别要求且记者明确表示同意,才可事先取消“所闻皆可录”。如果记者同意改变“所闻皆可录”的方式为其他方式,记者应当在采访笔记中做出清晰记录,以便在采访过后可确定哪些是可以发布的,哪些不能。绝不要依赖记忆。

  (2)“信源居幕后”,是一种有条件的许可,即信源允许记者使用他们所提供的所有信息,但不允许使用信源的名字。对于多数经验老到的记者来说,除非他们能够从其他信源处证实这些内容,否则他们不会使用这类信息。信源选择“身居幕后”,多数是他们提供的信息非常敏感,也就是说,这信息很可能会造成一场轰动。“身居幕后”意味着信源的名字不会出现在报道中。实际上这样做使你的消息来源变成了匿名,但是允许你使用该信源提供的信息来写作报道。此时,最好的办法是咨询你的教授。

  (3)“署职不署人”,意思是记者同意不以姓名方式公开信源的身份。在说明信源身份的时候仅提及信源的工作或是职务。这样的身份说明需要记者和信源达成一致意见,并且几乎总需要采取一种防止读者通过身份说明猜测出信源详细身份的方法(仅有极少例外——比如当采访外交官表达一个国家的官方观点时)。记者应当确保对身份的描述准确且尽量详细,比如记者将身份描述为“一位司法部的高级官员”,而不是“一位高级法律公务员”,这需要信源事先同意。

  (4)“不可引用”,是指限制记者使用信源提供的信息。所提供的信息是为了说明或者加深记者对于特定问题和事件的理解。(多位美国总统曾经邀请记者共同进餐,而双方约定席间交流的信息是不得被报道的)但是如果记者能够从不要求禁止发布的其他信源处确认该信息(这可能意味着采用所闻皆可录、信源居幕后、署位不署人等形式),记者可以刊发该内容。

  总之,最好是避免“不可引用”式的采访;另一个选择可以是先进行“不可引用”式采访,然后想办法说服信源同意发布这些信息。

  2.匿名

  纽约大学新闻系力劝学生在可能的情况下,避免使用未经确认身份的信源的信息。

  以《纽约时报》为例,近些年该报因为几篇主要基于匿名的传达特定观点的政府信源所写的报道,损害了时报报道新闻的“公正无私”的目标,即该报的创办人阿道夫·奥茨倡导的“没有恐惧,没有偏爱”的理念。比如,该报对美国国家实验室研究人员李文和事件的报道,克林顿政府坚持认为李文和是间谍,并通过匿名信源将他们的怀疑透露给《纽约时报》发布;该报对萨达姆拥有所谓的大规模杀伤性武器的报道,成了伊拉克战争的导火线,这些都严重玷污了这家报纸的名声。

  然而有些时候,如果已经反复努力,无法获得署名信源信息,经指导老师同意,才可以使用匿名信源提供的信息。一些明显的例子比如:信源承认犯下了罪行,如果刊发其姓名可能会导致其入狱;信源请求匿名,因为曝光于公众可能会使信源处于尴尬境地,并且危及信源的工作;非法移民惧怕泄露身份被驱逐。

  在这些情况下,学生应当向其教授咨询。如果必须使用匿名信源,学生应当在可能的情况下,提供尽量详细的有关信源身份的细节,并解释隐匿信源姓名的原因。比如,可这样描述信源的身份“一位因为上级命令不得对公众提及本案而要求匿名的紧密参与调查的侦探。”

  除非是在很少的情况下,记者不应当以匿名的形式刊发信源对于其他人的批评性言论或声明。通俗地说,如果有人不希望在对另一人批评的声明中署名,则记者不应使用该言论。在任何信源要求匿名的情况下,记者必须获取信源的姓名和地址、电话号码,并且要将这些信息提供给教授。实际上,此时教授就是以学生的编辑的身份在工作。

  3.面谈与电话访谈

  最好的方式是与信源面谈。面谈会使报道有色彩、描述性强。当与记者面对面时,信源会更容易放松,相互间可能会更信任。同样,对于记者来说,当与信源面对面时,也更容易估量信源的可信度。但是面谈并不一定总是能实现,在这种情况下,电话采访就是其次的最好的交流方式了。要确保通过拨打公司或者政府总机,来核实信源的身份。同时,如果信源仅愿意给你打电话,并且拒绝提供电话号码或是其他的联系方式,则该信源是可疑的。

  4.电子邮件采访有自己的优势

  很多信源坚持认为通过电子邮件采访,才能对谈话的内容有文字记录。而且,电子邮件采访能够比面谈或者电话采访更有效地阐明信息,特别是对于数字和高科技信息。但是电子邮件采访也存在问题。记者怎么才会知道发邮件的是信源本人呢?太多情况下,是公司的公关人员代表他们的老板或是客户回复通过电子邮件提出的问题。电子邮件回复经常倾向于小心翼翼地照本宣科,因此并不能真正代表信源的真正所想。同时,在面谈中的回答经常更可信。“追问”,这种最有效的探索提问方式,对于电子邮件采访来说,非常困难并且浪费时间。同样,通过即时交流软件进行采访并不能代替面谈或是电话采访。

  纽约大学新闻系强烈建议学生记者在可能的情况下,与信源面谈。这会带来更丰富更好的报道;写作者可以描写客观设施,比如信源的办公室的陈设等。



  5.随机访问。当记者在街上对游客、路人、选民进行随机采访时,一定要获得对方准确的联系方式(电话号码是首选,其次是电子邮件地址),编辑有可能需要以此来确认报道中引用的内容和事实,核对信源的身份,或者要求记者进一步对采访对象提出问题。经常情况下,街头截访的目的是试图在特定的人群中获得多样化的观点,而不仅仅是为了获得能为报道增色的引语。在这种情况下,记者应该努力采访到足够数量的人,以便记者能够有足够的自信:自己的报道包含了来自多方面的观点。如果可能,采访者应该以统计学承认的调查数据来支持其采访。对于采访到的信源的数量,记者应当永远对读者保持诚实。如果你仅采访了6个人,则不要给读者留下这样的印象:你的报道实际上反映了整个校园的观点。相反,你应当告诉读者你总共采访的人数,以及你量化他们观点的做法。

  6.对信源的责任。记者要尊重与信源之间的约定。有些信源冒了很大的风险为记者提供信息。如果你同意一位信源的匿名要求,则要保证你不会在报道中提到能使信源暴露身份的相关信息。这样的约定决不能轻率地达成,记者必须仔细考虑是否对信源承诺匿名,特别是那些可能最终会产生司法纠纷的报道。在司法程序中,拒绝透露信源的身份可能会导致记者入狱(保护信源所引致的法律后果将在下面的法律章节中讨论)。

  7.采访录音。对采访进行录音显然是有好处的,这也是对准确性的一种保证,也是证据。尽管一些州的法律允许专业记者在不经被访者事先同意的情况下,对谈话进行录音,但在有些州这是不允许的。纽约大学新闻系建议,学生在对任何采访录音前,要征求采访对象的同意,以避免任何潜在的官司风险。要在录音开始时说明日期、时间,并要求被采访人说出姓名,也就是让采访对象明确表示同意录音。

  在极少的情况下可以进行秘密录音。1986年,《莱克星顿先驱领袖报》因其系列报道获得普利策奖,“他们在规则之上运作”,通过对与肯塔基大学篮球队队员谈话进行秘密录音,这些队员告诉该报,一些球迷曾经违反全美大学生体育协会的规定,存在送队员现金和礼物的行为。记者和编辑曾经担心信源会迫于压力,不承认他们先前所说,从而使得该报可能面临诉讼。如果你确信秘密录音对于报道是必要的,你必须事先征得你的教授的同意。
下面是关于此的一些细节:

  (1)面对面录音:全美有37个州,加上哥伦比亚特区,允许在采访过程中进行不公开录音。这些被称为“单方同意州”,只需要对话的一方,比如记者,同意即可(当然这不是说记者可以在本身不是谈话一方的情况下,通过放置窃听器或者对电话的通话进行录音)。另一方面,有12个州禁止在没有经过谈话各方同意的情况下对谈话进行录音,包括:加利福尼亚州、康涅狄格州、佛罗里达州、伊利诺伊州、马里兰州、马萨诸塞州、密歇根州、蒙大拿州、内华达州、新汉普郡、宾夕法尼亚州和华盛顿(佛蒙特州没有相关法律规定)。在这些州,偷录是犯罪行为,违反者将面临牢狱之灾,这些法律在不同的州有不同的法律解释。

  (2)对电话进行录音:以上12个州需要在对电话录音之前征求通话各方的同意。联邦法律允许在单方同意的情况下对电话谈话进行录音,这个范围如今扩展到了无线和蜂窝移动电话。联邦通信委员会的规定与联邦法律相冲突——联邦通讯委员会要求,如果对穿越州界的电话进行录音,则通话各方必须在通话开始时即被告知通话将被录音。

  (3)使用照相机:13个州禁止在私人场合未经授权即使用照相机,这包括:阿拉巴马州、阿肯色州、加利福尼亚州、特拉华州、乔治亚州、夏威夷、堪萨斯州、缅因州、密歇根州、明尼苏达州、新汉普郡、南达科他州和犹他州。

  8.后“9·11”时代的报道和拍摄。尽管没有法律规定,不得对地铁站台或是正在巡逻的警车拍摄视频,但这并不意味着你这样做不会惹来执法部门的干涉。“9·11”之后,安全部门对恐怖主义高度关注。纽约甚至在桥梁和隧道处悬挂了禁止拍摄的标志。尽管记者可以通过测试安保部门的弱点来推出相关报道,但这样做可能会特别危险。这样的调查可能需要使用一定的逃避手段,并且可能违反刑事法律。比如你通过夹带一盒刀具登上喷气式客机,来测试机场的安保,你将可能被起诉。而且,有明确的法律禁止拍摄军事设施和核动力设施。
  
  调查材料和版权

  “消息来源”也可以被定义为调查材料,包括报刊、书籍、调查报告、研究成果、测试、广播、电视、新闻视频、纪录片、电影、网络视频音频等。所有这些材料,特别是辅助材料,都应被仔细核查。好的记者不仅仅是从文字和广电材料中提取信息;他们会对照其他材料或是类似的材料以求事实更加精确。仅仅是材料已经出版发布,并不意味着准确或者公正,比如维基百科并不总是一个合适的新闻来源。

  记者必须清晰地指出信息来自何处。不明确说明而引用别人的作品是缺乏职业道德的,并且会让读者或者观众对信息的合法性一无所知。如果引用的事实是众人皆知的,则不必烦琐了。如对于“约翰·亚当斯是美国的第二任总统”这样的话,就不必指出出处了。

  1.需复核的信息。学生应当在提交报道之前,坚持检查报道的拼写、年龄、职务、公司描述,以及其他事实。没有什么比报道事实出错更能破坏一位记者的信誉的了。另外,教授可以要求学生提供信源的联系方式以核实信息;学生必须按要求提供这些信息。

  2.正确使用。作为作者,你可以出于评论和批判、模拟的目的,合法地使用一定限量的有版权的材料,而不必事先获得允许。比如,一位书评作者,可以从所评论的著作中引用文本;一位影评者,可以描述电影情节,以讨论故事是否紧凑连贯。对版权材料使用方式不正确,则著作权所有者就可以阻止对他们的作品的负面言论的发表或者播出。

  以下行为明确违反了合理使用版权材料的原则:

  ◆从纽约时报网站上截取照片。

  ◆使用杂志封面的照片。

  ◆从最新的U2乐队单曲中截取1分钟的音乐。

  ◆从一部电影中截取3分钟的片段。

  ◆从谷歌地图或mapquest的地图中抓图。

  ◆从一份调研报告中大段引用。

  对于视频或者广播,正确的使用方式是使用不超过30秒或者更少的片段。判断是否正常使用的主要标准是,引用是否触及了版权资料的核心(如果是这样,这就是对正确使用原则的违反),还是仅起到解释说明的作用。

  比如:KCAL-TV电视网曾经播出了一段30秒钟的,从时长为4分钟的版权视频中截取的片段,这段视频显示了卡车司机雷金纳德·丹尼在1992年骚乱中被打的场景,该片段的引用被认为违犯了正常使用原则。法庭裁决认为电视网借用了该段视频的核心,影响了版权所有者销售该视频的能力。但当纪录片制片人从一场拳击比赛中截取了41秒钟视频,用于拳王默罕默德·阿里的传记影片中时,法院裁决认为这不是对正常使用的违反,因为其仅仅使用了很少的视频,并且其目的是其中的信息。

  2005年,独立视频和电影摄制者协会,以及独立纪录片协会签署了一份声明,该声明定义了制片者在正常使用版权材料时,不需要获得版权所有者同意即可对材料加以使用的4种情况:

  ◆“使用版权作品的材料作为社会、政治或者文化批评的对象。”换句话说,电视片制作人能够使用版权作品的一个片段,目的是用以评论或者批判。

  ◆“引用流行文化的版权作品以描述一场争论或是观点。”纪录片制作者能够使用版权作品来传达更重要的点——比如,一段来自《教父》的片段,来描述意大利裔美国人已经在很多年前就被电影描绘过了。

  ◆“在制作其他电影的过程中,拍摄到了有版权媒体的内容。”如果一位影片制作人因为跟拍角色经过一个报摊,偶然间拍摄到了最新《新闻周刊》的封面,或是在拍摄华盛顿广场公园全景时,拍到了街道乐队正在演奏“你的每一次呼吸”,则仍可以使用此素材以避免产生不真实感。

  ◆“在历史题材片子中使用版权材料。”一位想要制作历史题材电影的制片人或者纪录片制片人,可能想要使用事件发生时的讲话、与事件相关的音乐,或是当时的照片或电影。制片人应当寻求对材料使用的许可,但是如果无法实现,或是费用过于昂贵,则可以在以下情况下寻求对正确使用的免责:

  (1)该拍摄的主题并非“专门围绕该材料设计”;

  (2)该素材起到关键作用,并且具有不可替代性;

  (3)版权所有者是确定的;

  (4)该拍摄主题并不会不成比例地依赖于任何单一素材。

  3.在视频和音频片段中加入音乐。要注意音乐经常是有版权的。使用音乐要获得许可。即使巴赫的曲子也有可能是受版权保护的:不是指作曲者的版权,而是你可能要用的那段录音是有版权的。
  
  隐私权和公众的知情权

  记者经常面对的问题是在文章中应当披露私人生活的程度。仅仅是记者能够揭出报道对象的抵押、股票持有状况,或通过“谷歌地球”查看其家的住宅,并不代表这样做是符合伦理的;同样,也没有充分理由说明这样做是缺乏职业道德的。关键是此人的私生活——包括个人习惯、性取向、健康状况、怪癖等,是否有新闻价值。这往往很难让人做出决定。

  如果你打算写一篇关于在一场大火中被毁的同性恋酒吧的报道,你是否会公布在事故中死亡的人员名单?如果你获知一位社区服务人员曾是妓女,你会报道此事吗?如果一个女人控告一个男人强奸,在没做出判决之前,你是否会公布男人的名字?你是否会调查作为控告方的女人的性史?如果一位地方法官租了一部色情影片,这算新闻吗?

  举一些实际生活中的例子:

  ◆1992年4月,《今日美国》联系了一位挂拍的网球明星亚瑟·阿什,以确认关于他是艾滋病毒阳性患者的传言,传言说阿什在多年前的心脏手术中因为输血感染了艾滋病毒。亚瑟曾试图掩饰,但无法说服该报编辑放弃该报道,只好召开了新闻发布会,自己发表声明。尽管很多人认为这是对阿什隐私权的侵犯,该报通过声明“共谋平静不能服务于公众”说明自己行为的正义性。

  ◆奥利佛·西宝在1975年9月因为帮助阻止了一起对总统杰罗德·福特的暗杀而成为英雄。在随后的媒体报道中,他被报道是同性恋者,他的母亲拒绝接纳他。

  纽约大学新闻系教员坚信,隐私权决不能被轻视,并且建议学生记者不要探询新闻当事人的隐私,除非这的确与记者所进行的调查有关。一位当地政客光顾一家同性恋酒吧可能是他的私事;一位以反对同性恋姿态出现的政客,光顾同性恋酒吧,可能是公众事务。

  1.化妆舞会。在绝大多数情况下,记者应当清晰地向采访对象清楚地说明自己的记者身份。首先就报上你的名字和身份,比如简·史密斯,纽约大学新闻系,以及你联系对方的目的。在非同寻常的情况下,可能有不表明记者身份的合适原因。比如,采访警察与集会示威者的相互行为,或是纽约中国城的餐馆或是盗版音像品,表明自己的身份可能不合适,可能会改变对方对待你的方式(或是食物的质量)。同样,如果执行的是秘密任务,特别是如果公开自己的记者身份会导致潜在伤害,也可不标明身份。但是这些都是很少见的例子。

  2.互联网。记者经常浏览讨论版、博客论坛和在线社区寻找思想和信息,而不需要表明自己的记者身份。有时可以引用网络上的信息,比如,对某段视频,“Youtube”网站的用户有何反响。很显然,在这种环境下,记者没有必要总是表明自己的身份。但是如果一位记者希望使用来自博客、电子邮件或是其他互联网资源的信息,则应当注意互联网是盛行骗局的地方。如果有任何可能,要表明自己的记者身份,尽量劝服对方提供全部的身份信息。

  3.秘密报道。秘密报道是美国新闻业久已有之的传统。报道做得好,能帮助锁定腐败的政客和收取贿赂的警察,曝光欺诈和种族主义,且将落后社会中女性的生存状况曝光。报道做得不好,则会因为秘密监视、侵入公民的私人交易等侵犯公民的隐私权,从而侵蚀公众对媒体的信任。社会会希望记者发挥某种类似帮助警察锁定犯罪的功能吗?

  作为课堂作业,在着手任何秘密报道之前,要向你的教授咨询。仔细考虑你的报道是否会触犯法律或是法规(更多信息参见法律章节)。权衡可能出现的潜在危害。会有理由导致你被捕吗?会引致暴力吗?是否侵犯了一些人的隐私,特别是非公共领域,比如民居或是办公室?你所在的州是否有法律,禁止在未获取当事人允许的情况下录音,或是禁止使用隐藏式照相机?这是否会削弱你报道的有效性?这都是需要考虑的。

  《旧金山纪事报》的编辑在派出秘密采访任务之前,要考虑三个条件:

  ◆该报道或照片发布后,是否牵扯到重大的公众利益,使报道的新闻价值超过了可能产生的对报纸公信力的损害?

  ◆能否调整报道方式,从而避免在收集信息的过程中隐藏采访者的身份?

  ◆是否已经用尽了其他所有合理的方法?

  4.关于儿童的报道。记者应当在就任何有争议的题目采访儿童之前,征得其父母或监护人的同意。当然,就新开放的游泳池采访一位12岁的孩子,就不需要这样的特许了;而询问其对所在学校的看法则不同。采访前,记者应当与教员(或是专业的编辑)进行讨论,以确定相关的伦理问题。
  
  潜在的利益冲突

  在一个公众对媒体存在大量且不断增加的不满的时代,记者必须避免利益冲突(即职业的、个人的和(或)财务方面的),与记者对受众的职业责任争利的情况。

  1.写关于朋友或是家人的报道。绝大多数报纸禁止记者撰写这样的报道,禁止引用朋友或是家人的话,尽管可能会有例外,如果记者对此持开诚布公的态度。在自传中,这样做没问题。不过即使是自传,作者也有责任:记者应当对需要避嫌的社会关系保持公开透明,无论自己会因此损失什么。当一位记者被派出采访观点或是专家,则采访对象不应是亲属,除非记者能够诚实地声明此关系不会对其报道的观点有任何动摇。换句话说,记者会不会因为朋友关系而不爆料?这就是为什么在大多数情况下,避免在文章中使用朋友和亲属的观点,通常是个好主意。

  2.媒体宴会。大多数有声望的新闻媒体,禁止撰稿人参加媒体宴会。这些宴会是由记者报道对象组织的,提供给记者的短途旅行,比如:电影制片商、电子公司、政府机构等。

  3.接受款待。如果一名记者正在一家公司采访其CEO或是在其总裁家中采访,接受一块三明治和软饮料是可以的。但是在餐馆,记者就应当为餐饮付费。在工作期间饮用酒精饮料是不恰当的。《卡拉马祖报》曾经于2005年解雇了一名记者和一名摄影记者,因为他们在采访校园酗酒问题期间,参与了饮酒比赛。其总编辑声称,该两名记者的行为玷污了该报的报格。

  4.礼品。记者通常不应当接受任何来自采访对象或是报道对象的礼品。有时,采访对象会在事后送来纪念品表示感谢,但这必须是在稿件发表后。每一家媒体都有其关于接受礼品方面的规定。在新闻系,在可能的情况下,我们要求归还所有价格超过25美元的赠品。如果面对的是海外文化,拒绝好意被认为是粗鲁的,则可以接受食品、私人的住宿提供或是小赠品。同样,在一些文化中(比如在日本),记者在采访开始之前赠送给采访对象小礼品是恰当的,特别是当采访是在采访对象的家中进行时。总之,要运用常识加以判断。

(编译者杨晓白为大众报业集团编辑,美国俄亥俄州莱特州立大学MBA)



http://www.mediaunion.net/html/m ... emy/201205/343.html
发表于 2012-6-22 11:31:03 | 显示全部楼层
【案例】
在线教学等方式正冲击新闻教育业

 新浪传媒讯:据美国“波因特学院”网站6月报道,随着我们开始逐渐正视席卷媒体产业的这股改变浪潮,新闻教育面临巨变的这个事实就不可回避。
  对新闻教育业来说,它的将来注定是非同一般并且充满艰辛的,同时充斥着创新及创造性的破坏。我相信,我们将见证在新闻教育的价值与新闻学学位之间关系的一个演变过程。

  对未来而言,它不会只按照一个方向发展。一个20岁年轻人的未来和一个60岁老人的未来显然是天差地别的,任何人对这个问题都会持有很不一样的看法。

  新闻教育业的未来自然和新闻业本身的发展是息息相关的。两者之间既相互影响,又都是由当前存在的改变所引起的。

  新闻机构所遵循经济模式的崩塌是有据可查的,这股趋势从美国蔓延到欧洲,然后扩散到全球各地。

  在20多年前,这个变化势头才刚开始萌芽的时候,媒体产业错过了这个把握转折点的机会。到目前为止,由其他群体、其他的新兴机构,以及科技公司所引导的创新行为严重挫伤了传媒公司。

  在面对这些夺走整个新闻产业赖以生存经济基础的高新科技的同时,媒体产业的反应有些举足无措。整个产业都没有顺着趋势做出改变,去更好地服务它的观众群体;所以,他们错过了做出调整的机会。

  新闻教育业也正处在转折点上。

  不论你是否是一名教育工作者,或者是一名经营者、一个训练中心的学校管理人员,或者仅仅是对新闻业感兴趣,你都应该认识到,对新闻教育业来说,当前是一个相当关键的时刻;其重要程度不亚于20多年前传媒产业所面临的选择。

  如果没有一个茁壮的新闻教育,新闻业的未来会更加黯淡。这对紧密依赖于公正并准确信息的民主事业和民众们来说,也都不是一个好的消息。

  我们已经意识到了,随着经济模式的崩塌,传媒公司不可能从其中杀出一条血路来;新闻教育界也不能再按照他们原来的方式去教育新生代。

  不仅仅是传媒公司需要创新,新闻教育业也同样需要。我们需要从课堂内部开始,采用新的教学形式来带动创新。

  坦白来讲,仅仅揪着新闻教育来说事儿是很不公平的。这个乱象已经悄悄蔓延到了整个教育机构,无论是盈利的还是非营利性质的学校;它正在影响着从小学到大学范围内所有的教学机构。

  科技的创新不仅仅让媒体事业发生着翻天覆地的变化,同样也让教育事业遭受着冲击。

  当然,教育机构的办学宗旨可以多种多样。它可以是研究和学术性质的,可以是为了帮助学生适应社会生活,让他们具备独立能力;这样的宗旨就造就了这些接受过正规教育和培训的学生。

  然而,正是从这种教育和培训的模式中,笔者看到了最大断层出现的可能。未来可能出现的一种情况是:新闻学学士学位的教育开始实行分类计价。

  不妨思考一下,譬如像报纸和电视广播这样传统的大众媒体传播方式,对新闻和信息都是实行分类计价。在过去,这些传播方式获得经济价值的途径是,通过提供新闻这种稀缺产品。

  这个经济模式正是建立在新闻稀缺的基础之上,而新闻教育的社会和经济模式与它很相似;新闻教育是建立在受教育机会,以及学位稀缺的基础上。

  最初,被授予大学学位的人数目有限;这就让拥有大学学位的应聘者在招聘时具有特殊的优势。尽管一直有这样的共识,新闻学学士学位意味着接受过良好的新闻教育;但是,这并不意味着就有保证。

  我们所说的稀缺性是指,并不是每所学校都有新闻项目,而数量更加稀少的学校才具有对它进行认证的资质。这些项目都是以教师为重点,采用一种以“监护教育”为基础的传授方式。

  假如你所在的是一家以教师为中心的教育机构,那么你更不可能去让你的核心受众分心,而你们的受众群体往往就是你们所教授的学员。奈特基金会的埃里克·牛顿(Eric Newton)将这个称之为“迟缓交响乐”(symphony of slowness。)

  对新闻培训机构而言,稀缺性也同样意义非凡;他们主要是根据研究室的成本,或者座位的数量来限制培训数量。然而,科技改变的这一切,尤其是互联网的出现,却改变了我们学习的方式。

  科技给我们提供了新的教学形式,同时还有新的高效传播教学经验的途径。科技将营造出一个以学生为重点的文化氛围,对媒体产业而言,科技已经用类似方式创造出了一个更加注重以顾客为核心的媒体产业。

  新闻已经变得触手可及,随时随地只要读者/观众/用户希望去了解,就可以通过网络或移动设备去获取他所希望了解的信息;这对教育来说,也是一样。学生们可以通过网络去上学,这样他们就不需要真的去往某处;当然,他们也可以选择回到学校。

  那么为什么事物还没有发生改变?

  近几年,有很多的文章在谈论教育业出现的断层。目前,这些不可避免的改变已经开始冲击着各大高校,正如20年前他们对传媒公司造成的冲击那样。由于当今新闻教育业受到的种种约束,所以他们无法创新。

  而这样的制度让学生们获得接受最好教育的机会很少,他们仅仅是强迫学生们去根据“教室”可提供的座位去选择课程,而不是从世界最顶级的教师那里做选择。

  传媒类学校正面临着经济上的挑战:他们能从传统途径获得的资金越来越少,从公众获得的支持也越来越少。更严峻的是学术上的挑战:世界正改变的越来越快,快到已经超出了教师们的接受能力;而教师本应该是传授学生知识的人。

  与此同时,在媒体产业和学术团体之间,一直存在着一种不对称关系;而且笔者坚信,这个断层线还在不断继续扩大。

  新闻学学士学位有多重要?

  为了更清楚的剖析这个问题,本文作者对超过1,975位专业人士和教授进行了调研。大概有42%的调查对象来自学术团体,34%的来自传媒机构,11%是独立或自由工作者,其余的都是学生。

  当被问及新闻学学士学位对了解新闻的价值有多重要时,95%的学术界人士说,它是“极其重要的”。多于一半的(56%)专业人士说,它是“非常非常重要的”。在这两者之间,存在着一个接近40%的差距。

  当被问及这样一个学位对于学生们的价值,对他们的新闻采集、编辑和出版的技能和能力的影响时,调查结果同样存在着一个很大的差距:96%的学术界人士说,这样一个学位对学习技能而言是“非常非常重要的”;59%的专业人士评价说是“非常非常重要的”;

  通过上述结果,我们就可以了解到,各界人士在对新闻学学士学位价值的观点上存在着很大差异。而到目前为止,这个差距已经大的像一个峡谷。

  我们需要寻找新的方式,去传授新闻的价值和技能,并且我们所需要教授的知识必须与今天的传媒世界息息相关。

  哪些东西在起着影响?

  对新闻培训机构而言,对如何贴近观众、如何教授学生,以及如何评价成功方式的重新构想是机会与挑战共存的。

  我们需要鼓励教育机构去采用更多的教学方式,使用一切潜在的传达手段——包括演讲、视频、网络、自学以及定向学习等等。

  斯坦福大学提供大量的在线公开课,是相当具有创新性的一个例子。例如,这个大学推出了关于机器学习的在线课堂,总共有104,000位参与者登记;13,000位完成了这个课程。

  “在线课程”行动的先驱之一塞巴斯蒂安·史朗(Sebastian Thrun)免费讲授了一门关于人工智能的课程,共有超过160,000进行了登记。这个行动创造出了属于它自己的文化,其中包括一个Facebook群组、一个在线讨论组以及众多的志愿翻译人员,他们将这门课程译成了44种语言让其广泛流传,这个结果是如此让人兴奋。

  “自从完成了这个行动,我就不能再回斯坦福教书了,”根据《纽约时报》的一篇报道,史朗在1月份参与的一个数字会议上如此说道,“我觉得,这里有红蓝两色的两个药丸;你可以选择吞下蓝色的药丸,然后回到你的教室中,继续为20名学生进行讲座。但是,我已经吞下了红色的药丸,而且它让我看到了一个更加奇妙的世界。”

  这种培训形式很有效果。

  近期,“波因特学院”在美国的三所学校完成了一个题为“新闻学导论”的项目;每个波因特教员分享了他/她在这个为期16周的项目中所收获的个人意见。

  在密苏里州立大学的其中一个学院主要采用在线课堂,然后在这16周期间为学员们提供指导或者面对面的交流机会。与此同时,密苏里州立大学采用传统的课堂教学方式,对另一组学员教授相同的课程。

  在课程开始之前和完成以后,对在线学习和课堂学习的两组学员都进行了测试。在学习效果上,采用电子课堂、面对面交流这种混合教学方式的那组学员,比仅接受课堂教学的这组学员有过之而无不及。

  在由非营利性智囊机构Ithaka S+R发起的一个研究中,他们比较了采用两种不同方式进行授课的效果,课程科目都是统计学导论,其中一组采用教授面对面教学,另外一组主要通过网络教学;然后,在网络教学之外每周有仅仅一个小时的面对面交流时间。

  研究结果表明,接受两种方式的学生所取得的成绩一样出色。唯一的区别是:接受在线教学的这一组学院看起来学习地更快一些。

  这些新的教学方式正在冲击着教育行业。

  接触过在线教育的学生们明白这个道理,接触过电子课堂的学生们也懂这个道理。超过1/3的美国大学生已经加入到了电子课堂的行列中,而且这个数目还会继续增加。

  接下来会发生什么?

  美国教育部的一篇新报道表明,大概有53%的公立学校区允许高中生参加远程学习课程。在本学年,大概有1,300,000名高中生进行过远程学习;而五年前,这个数字仅仅是300,000。

  甚至一些没有接受过正式在线课程的学生,也正在使用着非正式的电子课堂,例如在YouTube上存在关于各种各样内容的视频教程。甚至还有一些像Khan Academy这样的机构,围绕创新教学方式开展出了新的业务。

  今天的学生甚至一些中青年群体,开始期待创新性的教育;这些学生期待的是一种非监护式的教育方式。

  世界充满了希望能写出更好文章、讲述更好故事、分享他们经验的人。无论是否拥有一个新闻学学士学位,这些人都是潜在的新闻工作者。

  “数字徽章”行动可能会为新闻教育带来创新性的发展,数字徽章代表了某人具备的专业技能或其他能力。该教育理念的支持者——麦克阿瑟基金会表示,数字徽章可以作为“成就、技能和兴趣的一个认证标志”。

  美国加州大学戴维斯分校的可持续发展农业项目就采用了数字徽章技术;这样就可以通过衡量核心竞争力,而不是通过标准的三学分方式来对项目进行评价。

  数字新闻教育徽章可以不仅仅显示出接受过的正式培训,同样也可以包含这些非正式的学习,譬如参与过某研讨会、获奖情况及完成的一些特殊项目。

  上述的这些内容主要展示着个人所掌握的技能,而不仅仅是具体的课堂学习经验。这样就超越了简单的对工作的罗列。这是一个激进的、具有破坏性的创新理念。

  徽章行动的出发点是,人们应该采用这样一种方式去采集有用的、有说服力的个人所学知识的全部信息,而不仅仅是展示他们曾经在某所大学上过某某课程。

  我认为,数字徽章行动需要被扶持和推广。

  更为重要和直接的是新闻培训机构应该团结起来,共同支持这种鼓励参与素质教育的新方式,无论是怎样和在哪儿学习到了这样的知识。

  笔者希望,全世界的新闻培训机构可以找到一种有效方式,去帮助参与者分享他们的收获,无论是谁提供的培训;我们需要更多的人接受新闻学教育。

  我们需要更多的方式向人们灌输好的新闻所具有的价值,无论是通过新闻平台还是新闻媒介。不管你是为一家公司打工,或者是自由职业者,这都没有关系,新闻教育正处于一个转折点。在此阶段,我们需要的是真正的教育上的创新。有些人会做这件事,而另外一些人则会被甩下;是时候让我们抓住未来的脉搏了!(秦朗)

http://news.sina.com.cn/m/2012-06-18/143724612513.shtml

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